The Poverty-Achievement Index. Now what?

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As a retired teacher just looking at the data I suppose I should be thankful to Linda Lutton from WBEZ and Melissa Silverberg and Tim Broderick from the Daily Herald for providing some.

Rather than just rank schools without regard for issues of poverty, they have created a Poverty-Achievement Index.

Now we can bracket out kids who live in poverty and compare them to one another and compare how their schools compare to one another and how they compare to kids and schools who don’t face the challenge of being poor.

And we can compare the teachers who teach kids in poverty to one another.

Why doesn’t this put a smile on my face this morning?

On the one hand, at least they are taking poverty into account when talking about schools.

Frankly, to her credit Linda Lutton has been doing this for years.

But a little voice in the back of my head is telling me that the last thing schools need is more bar graphs and pie charts comparing kids, schools and teachers to one another.

Didn’t we know that kids who live in poverty face incredible learning challenges?

And that the teachers who teach them face incredible teaching challenges?

And the parents who raise them face incredible life challenges?

How does a new way of ranking help us?

In the richest country in the world children represent a disproportionate share of the poor in the United States; they are 24 percent of the total population, but 36 % of the poor population.

In 2010, 16.4 million children, or 22% lived in poverty. 

There is value in looking at how teachers, schools, students and parents face the challenges of poverty and manage to beat the odds.

I don’t see how that really comes from a new index that ranks and compares them.

The shame is in that so many face the odds.

And that the number is growing.

Don’t call it “diversity.” Call it “racial segregation.” And “powerless.”

map

The map on the left shows how Chicago wards voted in the last election for mayor. Green wards voted for Mayor Rahm. Red wards voted for Chuy Garcia. The map on the left shows segregated Chicago. Blue is white. Green is Black. Orange is Latino. The line up perfectly with the results of the election.

This morning I found two pieces of data that I think are interesting and that I wish to share with you.

The New York Times has published a map and data that shows that if you are born in Cook County and poor, the odds are you will stay poor your entire life.

They call that lacking income mobility.

A passive phrase. Like shit happens.

This is a timely piece of information because I just got into one of those Facebook exchanges with a friend over the idea of American exceptionalism and the ability to pull yourself up by your boot straps if you just tried hard enough.

This is a myth. In America most poor kids grow up to be poor adults.

Friday, FiveThirtyEight’s Nate Silver posted an article with data about the relationship of diversity to segregation.

At some point the words racial integration became the word diversity.

I can’t pinpoint the moment. But there was a point when I noticed it. Maybe 1982.

Maybe it was around the same time we changed the way we pronounce the name of the planet, Uranus.

We no longer had racial segregation. We had a lack of diversity.

Segregating people was an active phrase. It was something we actively did.

Lacking diversity was a passive phrase. As in, how did that happen? It was like that when I got here.

The change in language led to things like corporations having diversity training.

Which never challenged racism.

Nate Silver’s data shows that Chicago is an incredibly diverse city and an incredibly segregated one.

It is diverse because lots of different kinds of people moved here.

It is segregated because of intent and policy.

What Silver doesn’t mention is how the policy and practice of segregation impacts political power.

As in our last election for Mayor.

The votes of four Lakefront white wards elected Mayor Rahm.

In fact most white Chicagoans have never voted for a mayoral candidate of color.

I believe that before something can be addressed, it must be named.

Like racism.

In 2014 CPS suspended a third of our African American male students. Rahm owns it.

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Thirty-three percent of African-American boys in CPS high schools were suspended in 2013-14 — versus 6 percent of white and Asian boys.

Twenty-four percent of students with disabilities in CPS faced suspension and 27 percent for students with the lowest test scores, compared with 7 percent for those with the highest scores.

Sixty percent of the suspensions in CPS were due to breaking school rules – not for violence or criminal behavior.

This is the data that comes from the report on CPS discipline from the University of Chicago’s Consortium on Chicago School Research.

While CPS was forced to cut back out-of-school suspensions when earlier numbers exposed similar bias, the numbers suggest that not much has changed.

Out-of-school suspensions have been replaced by other measures that keep students out of classrooms.

A far better measure of student learning or performance in school than a PARCC test is the data that they are kept out of the classroom by biased school discipline practices.

CPS leaders continue with policies that force the most needy students out of the classroom while doing nothing to address the underlying issues and conflicts that give rise to the suspensions.

Mayor Rahm Emanuel wants to paint a glowing picture of his governance of CPS and mayoral control.

He wants to own it.

He owns this too.

 

February, 2015 political map of Chicago.

Political map of Chicago

 

Data: Steve Bogira, The Reader:  “The mayor’s best vote totals citywide were 73 percent in the 42nd Ward (the Loop, River North, the Gold Coast); 72 percent in the 43rd (Lincoln Park); and 64 percent in both the 44th (Lakeview) and the Second (Near North Side). This is the mayor’s turf—within a mile or so of the lakefront, from downtown north, up to about Uptown, where incomes, and his support, begin to fall.

 

Les Perelman’s BABEL generator. You try it.

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My friend Les Perelman and some grad students came up with software that generates gibberish. They named the program BABEL,  the Basic Automated BS Essay Language Generator.

Why would MIT grad students want to generate gibberish?

To demonstrate the problem with computer-based scoring of test essays.

Les submitted the results to AES, Automatic Scoring Engines.  

“It works spectacularly well in producing nonsense that received high scores from various AES machines,” wrote Les.

BABEL even works well with ETS’ e-rater. Though ETS would not give me direct access to its scoring engine, ETS allows prospective test takers to take practice Graduate Record Exam (GRE) essays that are instantly graded by e-rater for $13. I have bought a number of these packages and have used the BABEL Generator to produce essays that consistently receive scores of 5 and 6 on a 1-6 point scale on each of the two writing assignments that comprise the writing portion of the GRE.

Naturally ETS has banned Les from future access to their scoring engine.

I tried it.

BABEL asks for three keywords.

I picked Chicago, politics and schools.

Here is what BABEL produced:

Chicago has not, and no doubt never will be misplaced. Human society will always enlightenment teachers; some of intercessions and others for a accumulation. a lack of Windy City lies in the field of literature but also the field of philosophy. Teachers is the most prototypically collaborating commencement of mankind.

Verisimilitude, especially for acceptance, articulates a query on rapaciously but discordantly antagonistic consequences by instructor. If conveyances voyage or belittle contemplation, pique that is consistently inappropriate but is iconoclastic, quotidian, and reproving with politics can be more venomously portended. Additionally, political relation, often at a assumption, can be the ligation. In my experience, all of the affronts to our personal epigraph of the exposition we taunt afford the allocations in question. Even so, armed with the knowledge that the divisive surfeit mortifies impropriety, most of the probes for my reprimand blubber. Our personal injunction to the aggregation we disparage acquiesces. Chicago which performs all of the demonstrations might certainly be an amygdala on our personal assassination with the taunt we surprise as well. The rumination of devices may be inauguration but is petulant yet somehow discrepant, not remuneration that depreciates contretemps and denounces dictates. In my theory of knowledge class, none of the dictators at our personal axiom by the exposure we allure collaborate and probe quips which civilize the advancement. The more a circumstance that gambols should be reprobation, the less provocation can diligently be a Gaussian onslaught.

As I have learned in my semiotics class, teacher is the most fundamental amplification of humankind. Though interference for veracity inverts, information processes brains. The same pendulum may process two different orbitals to process an orbital. The plasma is not the only thing the brain reacts; it also receives neutrinoes for disruption with Chicago. Due to advancing, humanely but egotistically admonished accumulations collapse also on Chicago. a startling teacher changes the dictum at Windy City.

The authentication, frequently to a retort, contravenes politics. The sooner the people involved attest, the sooner contemplation sanctions confluences. Furthermore, as I have learned in my literature class, society will always verify political relation. Our personal congregation of the convulsion we expel will be demolition with apprentices and may risibly be commission. The inspection might, still yet, be elidible in the way we respond or utter the inflexibly and pusillanimously atrocious acquiescence but accumulate intercessions. In my semantics class, almost all of the tyroes at my escapade convulse or augur the appendage. a quantity of political relation is inchoate for our personal speculation on the authorization we encounter as well. The avocation denigrates conjecture, not a ligation. In my experience, many of the circumscriptions by our personal assassin at the appetite we ascertain bemoan insinuations. The less rancor that seethes is antipodal in the extent to which we demarcate most of the adjurations for the realm of reality and infuse or should unyieldingly be a trope, the more affronts articulate the trope of parsimony.

Politics with agronomists will always be an experience of human society. In any case, armed with the knowledge that sublimation may perilously be compensation, most of the domains at my aggregation dictate commencements but quibble and disseminate inquiries which fascinate a rumination. If elated agriculturalists intercede and appease sanctions to the admonishment, teachers which choreographs assassinations can be more naturally assimilated. Instructor has not, and undoubtedly never will be articulated but not risible. Chicago is genially but fallaciously whimpering as a result of its those in question.

Would this get me into Harvard? Who knows?

But Les’ research suggests it would score well on an AES.

You try it.

http://babel-generator.herokuapp.com/

 

Because it was awesome.

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The folks at Education Next have given the thumbs up to field trips.

Even though it won’t be on the test.

Education Next is a group of corporate education reformists. Like the Fordham’s Michael Petrilli and Fred Hess.

 Here is the study.

In case you were worried, the value of field trips is now research-based.

Our goal in pursuing research on the effects of culturally enriching field trips is to broaden the types of measures
 that education researchers, and in turn policymakers and practitioners, consider when judging the educational success or failure of schools. It requires significantly greater effort to collect new measures than to rely solely on state-provided math and reading tests, but we believe that this effort is worthwhile. By broadening the measures used to assess educational outcomes, we can also learn what role, if any, cultural institutions may play in producing those outcomes.

I used to do an annual field trip with my 4th grade students to the Chicago Loop.

I have no data to show that this was a meaningful experience other than the screeches of delight and the number of times “awesome” came out of the kids’ mouths.

Ninety kids rode the Metra train to the Transportation Center on the west side of the Loop. They broke into groups of ten with a parent, a teacher and a map. They were to find five examples of public art and five examples of Chicago architecture by known Chicago architects. They had an hour to get across the Loop to Millennium Park where we had lunch.

They had to climb a Du Buffet. They had to slide down the Chicago Picasso. They had to walk through a revolving door. They had to learn to walk on the right side of the sidewalk. They had to turn their backs to the Chase Bank Building and look at its sloping columns by leaning back and staring up. They had to walk into Macy’s and right in the middle of the perfume section look up at the Tiffany glass ceiling tiles.

After lunch in front of the Gehry stage at Millennium Park we crammed under The Bean and splashed in the fountain of spitting faces.

They would be dry by the time we finished the fast march across the Loop to catch the 2:30 train back home.

The next time in class there would be no test.

Instead my students drew and painted the most glorious images of Chicago.

I feel no relief knowing the research supports the value of the experience.

That is because I always knew.

Because it was awesome.

What the candidates aren’t talking about: The decline of African-American students at the University of Illinois.

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Data: News-Gazette

Here is an issue that Pat Quinn and Bruce Rauner won’t be talking about:

The historic decline of African-American students at the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana, the state’s flag-ship public university.

It seems it is not for all the public.

356 African-Americans entered as freshman this year.

The total percentage of African-American students in all undergraduate, graduate and professional programs is 4.86%.

Illinois’ African-American population is 14% of the total.

One year at the UI, including tuition, fees, room and board, comes at a price tag of about $25,000 for Illinois residents, up from nearly $15,000 a decade ago.

As the university has become more selective and admissions standards have risen, some students coming out of high schools in the Chicago region (home to the state’s largest population of African-Americans) and some areas of downstate Illinois are not receiving the kind of secondary education that enables them to qualify for admission to the Urbana campus, said James Montgomery, a member of the UI Board of Trustees.

Montgomery, a successful Chicago attorney and champion of equal rights, graduated from the UI in 1953 and received his law degree from the school in 1956, well before Project 500 was even conceived.

U of I is losing many academically qualified students to other universities because it does not have the financial resources to support scholarships that would enable such students to attend school here.

“That’s a major problem, a major problem,” he said.

“If we want to try and get qualified African-American students who go to school in Illinois to attend the University of Illinois, we have to find a way to deal with the tuition problem,” he said. “Until we do that … we’re not going to get them.”

With the state’s Monetary Award Program offering need-based financial aid to about half of those who qualify and apply — and the UI itself only able to offer aid to students with family incomes up to $85,000 (and that’s any kind of aid, from a $1,000 scholarship to student loans) — it’s no surprise to Banks that fewer of the state’s African-American families are sending their children to the University of Illinois.

The fact is, there are not a lot of rich, black people who can pay tuition to come to the UI, Banks said.

“We are the canary in the coal mine. This is going to affect the entire state population. The only people who will be able to afford the U of I will be rich people. The U of I will longer in effect be a state institution. It will be more of a private institution,” Banks said. “It’s a prescription for disaster.”

Will you hear about this during the next gubernatorial debate?

I don’t think so.

Slavery. A new school value.

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The Economist declares that efficiency is a new school value.

“Higher teacher pay and smaller classes are not the best education policies.”

Ha! Says who?

Maybe Rahm.

And GEMS Educational Solutions, a consulting firm that looked at PISA scores, an international comparison of 15-year-olds in core subjects.

GEMS then correlates those scores to class size and teacher salaries and comes up with an efficiency score.

The United States ranks 19th using their efficiency score.

With an average teacher salary of only $14,000 and good test scores, Hungary ranks 4th.

“Highly efficient,” The Economist announces.

By using this new school value the wealthy New Trier (Sorry guys. I know you must be tired of being the example of a wealthy public school. On the other hand, you are the example of a wealthy public school.) is not highly efficient.

Sure, their test scores are high.

But so are teacher salaries.

And they have small classes.

Very inefficient.

If only New Trier could get those same results by lowering teacher salaries and raising class size.

In fact, high results, larger class size and teacher indentured servitude would be the most efficient.

Slavery.

A new school value.

Ya think New Trier parents would stand for that?

Bunkum on teacher quality from the corporate reformers.

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“Arghhh!”

“What,” says Anne as we are driving to get some coffee at Peets this morning. “Are you having a heart attack?”

Not quite. But I was listening to NPR do a story on college and university teacher preparation programs based on a report from the National Council on Teacher Quality.

Most programs, the report said, were failures. Colleges of education were sending out fools, incompetents and clowns into America’s classrooms.

NPR was reporting this as if NCTQ doesn’t have an agenda that is totally aligned with the corporate reformers.

Or that the NCTQ ranking of teacher preparation programs is totally aligned with Common Core standards.

This morning Diane Ravtich’s blog explains the history of NCTQ.

That history is exactly what caused me to raise a stink a few years ago when I discovered that IEA Executive Director Audrey Soglin had agreed to sit on NCTQ advisory board.

While our union should be concerned with teacher quality, I couldn’t understand what kind of common ground we had with these right-wingers and corporate windbags.

Audrey soon saw the light and got off the board.

But shame on NPR for just repeating corporate reform talking points without a critical eye.

 

Breaking. Shocking. New study disproves the theory that throwing money at schools doesn’t do any good. It does.

Money toss

How much money do you think was spent on a new study that demonstrates that spending money on schools that serve poor kids will result in the poor kids doing better at school?

Headline in Education Week:

School Spending Increases Linked to Better Outcomes for Poor Students

Sound of palm of my hand smacking my forehead.

In districts that substantially increased their spending as the result of court-ordered changes in school finance, low-income children were significantly more likely to graduate from high school, earn livable wages, and avoid poverty in adulthood.
So concludes a working paper published this month by the National Bureau of Economic Research, or NBER, a private, nonpartisan research organization with headquarters in Cambridge, Mass.

The facts:

For low-income students who spent all 12 years of school in districts that increased spending by 20 percent, graduation rates rose by 23 percentage points. Due to the measurement error or “noise” found in almost any study of this type, the effect could, very plausibly, be as low as 8.7 percentage points and as high as 37 percentage points. The estimates are based on the study’s analysis of 15,000 children born between 1955 and 1985. All account for a host of other potential explanations, such as school desegregation, War on Poverty programs, and demographic changes.

The paper’s analysis also found that low-income children who were exposed to a 20 percent spending increase for their entire school careers attained nearly a full year of additional education after high school. (That estimate ranged from about four months to 1½ years.)

Between the ages of 25 and 45, these same children were 20 percentage points less likely to fall into poverty during any given year. (Estimates vary from 8 percentage points to 31 percentage points.) Their individual wages were 25 percent higher than they would have been without the changes, with estimates ranging from 3 percent to 45 percent, according to the paper. And their family incomes were 52 percent higher, with estimates ranging from 17 percent to 86 percent.

And so…